Seven Elements of interior design

Aesthetics of space planning and interior design are governed by Principles and Elements. These element contribute to the success of the overall design. In this post we are going to talk about the seven elements of Interior design such as Space, Form, Line, Texture, Pattern, Light and Color. 


Space can be categorized into three types: Flat space, perceptual space and actual space.

Flat space is an two-dimensional space consisting of height and width.  Perceptual space is both two-dimensional and three-dimensional.  We can control, create and vary the perceptual space. By using mirror one can change the size perception of the room and by tiling a bathroom up to ceiling would make the bathroom appear large.  One should understand the difference between the perceptual space and the actual space. Perceptual space is also affected by how a designer makes use of contrast.

Space perception 2

02. FORM

Form and space are antithesis to each other. Greater the form, lesser the space and vice versa. Forms can be straight, curved, or irregular. Forms are of two types, it can be a geometric form (man-made) or organic form (natural).

03. LINE

Line is one of the most fundamental elements of design because it can enclose space and
convey form through outline and contour.Without line, which in theory has only one dimension
and technically consists of a series of points,we cannot perceive form or shape. Line can indicate direction, movement, length, weight, masculinity or femininity.  

Horizontal lines widens the room and makes the make the ceiling appear lower than they really are. Where as vertical lines will heighten the room and make the ceiling appear higher than they really are. Combination of faint, fine and delicate lines can create a feminine atmosphere. Using thick, heavy lines or using thick exposed roof beams pr wooden wall paneling  can create a masculine atmosphere. Stripped rug will make your room appear longer. Diagonal lines creates a illusion of motion, energy and dynamism.


Texture plays an important role in contemporary interior design. Textures are classified into actual textures (textures that can be felt by touching) and visual textures (simulated textures). Contrasted textures are appealing than the combination of similar texture. Texture can be used to create the illusion of having a smaller ceiling by having a rough finish ceiling and a smooth ceiling have the opposite effect. 


A pattern is formed by the use of line, form, light and color.  A pattern can be a design on a object surface or can emerge from the structure. The total arrangements of the various components of a room creates an overall pattern. When pattern is correctly used it created an unified composition but when improperly used it can destroy your design. 

Wallpaper and textile can be used to create a coordinated patterns and colors. A wallpaper with vertical design will make a ceiling appear higher and a strong horizontal design will make a room appear wider and the ceiling lower.            

 06. LIGHT

Light is everywhere around the world. Visible light is the light that humans can see. Light and color can influence how people perceive the area around them. Objects under a uniform light source will promote better impression of 3-dimensional shape.

There are many light sources natural and artificial. The most common natural source is the sunlight. Specific hues of color seen under sunlight may vary when seen under the artificial light.


Use of colors has psychological impact on the person who sees them. Color has been used for a long time to create different perception about the surrounding. Blue color is normally used in the hospital recovery rooms. And red color is usually associated with romance, where as black color is associated with evil or bad omen. A designer should show judiciousness when applying colors in ones design. Perception about color can vary from person and person and it can be influenced by like cultural background, religious background, past experience, gender and race.

Tone and color can be used to create optical illusions. For example, rooms can be made to look bigger with the use of high tonal colors, or they can be made to look smaller by using low tonal colors. High ceilings can be made to look lower by using low tones or low ceilings can be made to look higher if in a higher tonal value than the walls. A floor treated in a low tone will make a room feel smaller.